The statehood of Georgia that dates back to ancient times was lost by the Georgian nation in the 19th century following the annexation of Georgia by the Russian Empire, which suppressed Georgian statehood. The Georgian people have never accepted the loss of freedom. The suppressed statehood was restored on 26 May 1918 by the proclamation of the Act of Independence. The Democratic Republic of Georgia was established, with the bodies necessary to represent state authority, elected on a multi-party basis and with the Constitution.
In February-March 1921, Soviet Russia violated the peace agreement of 7 May 1920 between Georgia and Russia, and in an act of aggression, occupied the state of Georgia, previously recognised by Russia. This was subsequently followed by the de facto annexation of Georgia.
Georgia did not join the Soviet Union voluntarily, and its independent statehood has persisted to this day, and the Act of Independence and the Constitution still have legal force, because the Government of the Democratic Republic never signed an agreement relinquishing its independence, and continued to work in exile.
The entire period during which Georgia was forced to be a member of the Soviet Union was marked by bloody terror and repressions, the most recent manifestation of which was the tragedy of 9 April 1989. The covert war against Georgia is still ongoing, its aim to hold back Georgia's aspirations for freedom and democracy.
The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, elected on the basis of a multi-party system and democratic principles on 28 October 1990, drawing on the unanimous will of the population of Georgia, as expressed in the referendum of 31 March 1991, hereby establishes and proclaims the restoration of the independent state of Georgia based on the Act of Independence of Georgia of 26 May 1918.
The territory of the sovereign Republic of Georgia is indivisible and inalienable. Only the Constitution and the state authorities of the Republic of Georgia shall be supreme in its territory. Every action aimed at the limitation of the supremacy of the state authorities of the Republic of Georgia or the violation of its territorial integrity shall be regarded as interference in the domestic affairs of a sovereign state, aggression and a violation of the norms of international law.
The primacy of international law over the laws of the Republic of Georgia and the direct effect of its norms in the territory of Georgia has been declared as one of the basic constitutional principles of the Republic of Georgia.
The Republic of Georgia, striving for a dignified position in the world community of nations, recognises and ensures equally all the fundamental rights and freedoms of individuals, including national, ethnic, religious and linguistic groups, envisaged by international law, as required by the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and international pacts and conventions.
The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia declares that it will strictly adhere to universally recognised principles of political, economic and cultural cooperation with other states.
The restoration of state independence of the Republic of Georgia fully complies with the Charter of the United Nations, the Helsinki and Vienna Acts, which recognise and enshrine therein the right of every nation to decide on the political fate of its own country.
The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia expresses the hope that the international community of nations will not remain indifferent to the legitimate and fair act of the Georgian people and will recognise the restored state independence of Georgia, which will serve as one of the most reliable guarantees for the security of the Republic of Georgia.
Signed by members of the Supreme Council and members of the Government of the Republic of Georgia
Tbilisi, 9 April 1991